Rauh is a developmental epidemiologist (Harvard School of Public Health, ScD) and social worker (Smith College School for Social Work, MSW) by training, whose work focuses on the long-term health effects of toxic social and physical environmental exposures, particularly with respect to socioeconomically disadvantaged and minority populations. Grounded in neuroscience, Rauh has studied the combination of exposure to social and physical stressors, including adverse childhood experiences, the built environment, and specific chemical hazards (tobacco smoke, pesticides, and air pollutants) on pregnancy, maternal, child, and family health. Rauh has been principal investigator on more than 20 major research projects, including studies of the impact of organophosphorus insecticides and secondhand smoke on child neurodevelopment and brain abnormalities (MRI), a randomized intervention trial for low birth weight infants, a multi-site study of lifestyles in pregnancy, a study of developmental outcomes of children born to innercity adolescent mothers, a multi-level analysis of the impact of Head Start on NYC school children, a study of the effects of ambient air pollutants on pregnant women and their children, and a study of links between race, stressors, and preterm birth. Rauh has served on numerous national committees including the Scientific Advisory Board for the Environmental Protection Agency, NIH study sections, and expert panels for EPA, NIEHS, NIMH, and NICHD. Rauh is currently the Director of CHILD (Child Health Initiative for Learning and Development), a Columbia University initiative, and the co-director of Trauma-Free NYC, a NYC-wide partnership for trauma informed action.